Policy Evaluation on Immigration Electronic Stamp, Biometric Data, and Autogate Machines in the Context of Geopolitics

Gede Maha Aditya Pramana, Intan Nurkumalawati, Ridwan Arifin


Immigration Border Control (TPI) at Bali Ngurah Rai Airport adopts electronic entry sticker, biometric data collection, and autogate machines called the Immigration Movement Application System (APK). The system is equipped with a scanner that records facial biometric data and fingerprints of foreigners upon arrival. However, there are problems in implementing this system at the related TPI. This study evaluates immigration inspection policies, especially the process of taking biometric data, giving electronic entry stamps, and autogate machines at TPI Ngurah Rai Airport. This research uses qualitative research method with a public policy evaluation approach based on observations and document analysis. The results of this research show that the concept of biometric border control at TPI is not fully relevant to the concepts in the international provisions of ICAO Doc 9303 and ICAO TRIP Guide 2018. The Ministerial Regulation Number 28 of 2018  on Immigration Stamp and Circular Letter No. IMI.1-UM.01.01-5.7755 needs to be evaluated and revised to include four stages of checking with electronic stamps and system synchronization with autogate machines. This immigration clearance model at TPI applies a geopolitical concept that focuses on territorial/regional borders rather than a biopolitical concept that focuses on security risks for individuals.


Keywords: electronic stamp; autogate machine; biometric data; geopolitics; biopolitics

  Full Text:

PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)


Alden, Edward. “Immigration and Border Control.” Cato Journal 32, no. 1 (2012): 107–124.

Anderson, Bridget. “Us and Them.” Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 53, no. 9 (2013): 1689–1699.

Anugerah, Nilam Rizky, and Anindito R Wiraputra. “KONTRADIKTIF IMPLEMENTASI AUTOGATE TERHADAP CAP KEIMIGRASIAN.” Journal of Law and Border Protection 2, no. 2 (2020): 63–75.

Arifin, Ridwan ; Nurkumalawati, Intan. “KEBIJAKAN PEMERIKSAAN KEIMIGRASIAN DI INDONESIA: BENTUK PELAYANAN PUBLIK DAN PROFESIONALISME PETUGAS IMIGRASI (Immigration Control Policy in Indonesia: Public Service Delivery and Professionalism of Immigration Officers).” Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum 14, no. 2 (2020): 1–209.

Arifin, Ridwan. “Penolakan Orang Asing Ke Indonesia Melalui Tempat Pemeriksaan Imigrasi Di Bandara Internasional: Sebuah Kedaulatan Absolut (Refused Entry Persons to Indonesia through Immigration Border Controls at International Airports: Absolute Sovereignty).” Jurnal Kajian Keimigrasian 1, no. 1 (2018): 151–165. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3329046.

Arifin, Ridwan, and Intan Nurkumalawati. “Kebijakan Pemeriksaan Keimigrasian Di Indonesia: Bentuk Pelayanan Publik Dan Profesionalisme Petugas Imigrasi.” Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum 14, no. 2 (2020): 243.

Arifin, Ridwan, Intan Nurkumalawati, and Bobby Briando. “The Theoretical Perspectives of Immigration Controls: Immigration Clearance Process, Selective Policy and Security Approach At Airports in Indonesia.” In 2nd International COnference on Multidiciplinary Academic Research, 251:251–260, 2019. www.apiar.org.au.

Bank, World. Doing Business. Vol. 6, 2020.

Bossong, Raphael, and Helena Carrapico. EU Borders and Shifting Internal Security. Technology, Springer. Vol. 72. Springer, 2016.

Díaz Rodríguez, Vanessa. “Transborder Biometric Information Flow: Legal Challenges To Personal Privacy and the Need for Public Debate Statement Regarding Published Work Contained in Thesis,” no. May (2014).

Díaz, Vanessa. “Legal Challenges of Biometric Immigration Control Systems.” Mexican Law Review 7, no. 1 (2014): 3–30.

Direktorat Jenderal Imigrasi. Peraturan Direktur Jenderal Imigrasi Nomor IMI.459.GR.01.02 Tahun 2011 Tentang Standar Operasional Prosedur Border Control Management. Indonesia, 2011.

Finotelli, Claudia, and Giuseppe Sciortino. “Through the Gates of the Fortress: European Visa Policies and the Limits of Immigration Control.” Perspectives on European Politics and Society 14, no. 1 (2013): 80–101.

Firdaus, Insan. “Optimalisasi Pos Lintas Batas Tradisional Dalam Pelaksanaan Fungsi Keimigrasian Studi Kasus Imigrasi Entikong.” Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum 12, no. 1 (2018): 57–71.

Gorodnichy, Dmitry O. “Multi-Order Biometric Score Analysis Framework and Its Application to Designing and Evaluating Biometric Systems for Access and Border Control.” IEEE SSCI 2011 - Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence - CIBIM 2011: 2011 IEEE Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Biometrics and Identity Management (2011): 44–53.

Hanita, Margaretha. “Geopolitik Dan Isu Perbatasan Dalam Pendekatan Multidisiplin.” Jurnal Kajian Stratejik Ketahanan Nasional 1, no. 1 (2018): 62–71.

ICAO. “Doc 9303 - Machine Readable Travel Documents - Part 09: Deployment of Biometric Identification and Electronic Storage of Data in MRTDs.” Doc 9303, Machine Readable Travel Documents (2015).

———. “ICAO TRIP Guide on BORDER CONTROL MANAGEMENT.” Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization, 2018.

Jazuli, Ahmad. “Eksistensi Tenaga Kerja Asing Di Indonesia Dalam Perspektif Hukum Keimigrasian.” JIKH 12, no. 1 (2018): 89–105.

———. “Penyelesaian Permohonan Pendaftaran Paten Dalam Rangka Peningkatan Pelayanan Publik.” Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum 12, no. 3 (2018): 243–257.

Kemenkumham. Peraturan Menteri Hukum Dan HAM No. 28 Tahun 2018 Tentang Cap Keimigrasian. Meneteri Hukum Dan HAM, 2018.

Krasteva, Anna. SPACES, LINES, BORDERS: Imaginaries and Images. Routledge, 2016.

Marshall, Catherine, and Gretchen B. Rossman. Designing Qualitative Research. SAGE Publications, 2015.

Menteri Hukum dan HAM RI. Peraturan Menteri Hukum Dan HAM RI No. 44 Tahun 2015 Tentang Tata Cara Pemeriksaan Masuk Dan Keluar Wilayah Indonesia, 2015.

Mitsilegas, V. “Rethinking Border Control for a Globalizing World: A Preferred Future.” Rethinking Border Control for a Globalizing World: A Preferred Future (2015): 1–203.

Møhl, Perle. “Biometric Technologies, Data and the Sensory Work of Border Control.” Ethnos 0, no. 0 (2019): 1–16.

Nugroho, Trisapto Wahyu Agung. “Optimalisasi Peran Timpora Pasca Berlakunya Peraturan Presiden Nomor 21 Tahun 2016 Tentang Bebas Visa Kunjungan.” Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum 11, no. 3 (2017): 263–285.

Plankey-Videla, Nancy. “Immigration Policy in the Age of Punishment: Detention, Deportation, and Border Control.” Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews 49, no. 3 (2020): 246–248.

Polner, Mariya. “Coordinated Border Management: From Theory to Practice.” World Customs Journal 5, no. 2 (2011): 49–64.

Pötzsch, Holger. “The Emergence of IBorder: Bordering Bodies, Networks, and Machines.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 33, no. 1 (2015): 101–118.

———. “The Emergence of IBorder: Bordering Bodies, Networks, and Machines.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 33, no. 1 (2015): 101–118.

Putra, Bagas Hidayat, and Ridwan Arifin. “The Adoption of Border Technology of Immigration Control and Autogates in Indonesia.” SINTECH (Science and Information Technology) Journal 3, no. 2 (2020): 137–148.

Rizqi, Mochamad, Erza Lasoturia, and Gede Maha. “BORDER MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES AT THE BORDER IN INDONESIA.” Customs Research and Application Journal 2, no. 2 (2020): 121–140.

Rusdiyantara. “Collaborative Border Management as the Strategic Revitalization of State Border Management in Indonesia.” International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 116 (2018): 415–426.

Seghetti, Lisa. “Border Security: Immigration Inspections at Port of Entry.” Immigration Inspections and Enforcement at and Between Ports of Entry (2014): 1–48.

Simmons, Beth A. “Border Rules.” Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law, no. 2045 (2019): 1–46. https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/faculty_scholarship/2045.

Sugiyono. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, Dan Tindakan, 2013.

Trauttmansdorff, Paul. “Border Politics.” Border Politics (2017): 107–126.

Triandafyllidou, A. Migration and Pandemics: Spaces of Solidarity and Spaces of Exception. IMISCOE Research Series, 2022.

Walsh, James P. “Watchful Citizens: Immigration Control, Surveillance and Societal Participation.” Social & Legal Studies 23, no. 2 (2014): 237–259.

Wilonotomo, Wilonotomo, Bagas Hidayat Putra, and Ridwan Arifin. “Rancangan Sistem Pendeteksian Paspor Palsu: Solusi Pemeriksaan Keimigrasian Di Indonesia.” Jurnal Sistem dan Teknologi Informasi (Justin) 8, no. 4 (2020): 409.

  Article Metric

Abstract this article has been read : 1149 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) file viewed/downloaded : 778 times

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/kebijakan.2022.V16.41-60


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Gede Maha Aditya Pramana, Intan Nurkumalawati, Ridwan Arifin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum Indexed by :


Complete list

Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum Statistic