Strengthening Democratic Policing in the Perspective of Civic Education: A Conceptual Analysis

Mursyid Setiawan, Cecep Darmawan, Muradi Muradi, Syaifullah Syaifullah


One effort to strengthen the idea of democratic policing is through civic education. This research has the main aim of analyzing the conceptual aspects contained in civic education in order to provide strengthening ideas for democratic policing. This research also attempts to outline the challenges of democratic policing as viewed from the perspective of civic education in Indonesia. This article uses Gary Goertz's three-level conceptual analysis framework to dissect the conceptual dimensions in civic education that are useful for strengthening democratic policing. Qualitatively, data was obtained using literature studies from various books, journal articles, report documents, and other literature. This study shows that civic education, which is integrated with democracy, politics, law, human rights, anti-corruption, and peace education, can be a vehicle for conceptually strengthening the idea of democratic policing. In addition, this study found a number of challenges for civic education in strengthening democratic policing efforts in Indonesia. The main challenges are the problems that occur in the police institution, including not yet fully supporting democratic culture and spaces for citizens, the issue of police neutrality in political life, the practice of violations of law and human rights by police officers, the existence of corrupt behavior, and the fact that the police has not yet fully become a humanist and non-violent institution. This study requires further research to see to what extent the implementation of the concept of civic education can strengthen democratic policing efforts that are oriented to the citizenship dimension.


civic education; conceptual analysis; democratic policing

  Full Text:

PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)


Aksinudin, Saim, Subelo Wiyono, and Ayu Fitria Nariswari. “Civic Education as Anti-Corruption Education for College Students.” Jurnal Civics: Media Kajian Kewarganegaraan 19, no. 1 (2022): 53–63.

Anandya, Diky, and Lalola Easter. Laporan Hasil Pemantauan Tren Penindakan Kasus Korupsi Tahun 2022. Jakarta Selatan: Indonesia Corruption Watch, 2023.

Aydın-Aitchison, Andy, and Ceren Mermutluoğlu. “Mapping Human Rights to Democratic Policing through the Echr.” Security and Human Rights 30, no. 1–4 (2020): 72–99.

Baeihaqi, Baeihaqi, and Kokom Komalasari. “Law-Related Education Framework in Civic Education Learning in the New Normal Perspective.” Proceedings of the Annual Civic Education Conference (ACEC 2021) 636, no. Acec 2021 (2022): 542–47.

Barry, Norman P. An Introduction to Modern Political Theory. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1995.

Bayley, David H. Changing the Guard: Developing Democratic Police Abroad. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Bevington, Terence, Nomisha Kurian, and Hilary Cremin. “Peace Education and Citizenship Education: Shared Critiques.” In The Palgrave Handbook of Citizenship and Education, edited by Andrew Peterson, Garth Stahl, and Hannah Soong, 155. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.

Bonner, Michelle D. “What Democratic Policing Is … and Is Not.” Policing and Society 30, no. 9 (2020): 1044–60.

Brander, Patricia, Laure De Witte, Nazila Ghanea, Rui Gomes, Ellie Keen, Anastasia Nikitina, and Justina Pinkeviciute. COMPASS: Manual for Human Rights Education with Young People. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, 2020.

Branson, Margaret Stimmann. “The Role of Civic Education.” Center for Civic Education, 1998.

Bruce, David, and Rachel Neild. The Police That We Want: A Handbook for Oversight of the Police in South Africa. Johannesburg, South Africa: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 2005.

Burke, Kimberly C. “Democratic Policing and Officer Well-Being.” Frontiers in Psychology 11, no. May (2020): 1–9.

Cogan, John J., and Patricia Kristine Kubow. “"Multidimentional Citizenship: Educational Policy for the Twenty-First Century.” International Service Learning & Community Engagement 2 (1997).

Council of Europe. Competences For Democratic Culture: Living Together as Equals in Culturally Diverse Democratic Societies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, 2016.

Darmawan, Cecep. “Pendidikan Politik Generasi Muda.” Jurnal Majelis: Media Aspirasi Konstitusi 5 (2020): 135–58.

Darry, Mohammad, and Diah Asri. “Problematika Netralitas Polri Di Era Jokowi: Keterlibatan Dalam Politik Praktis Dan Bisnis.” Jurnal Politik Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Politics) 8, no. 1 (2022): 30–48.

Division for Public Education American Bar Association. Essentials of Law Related Education: A Guide For Practitioners & Policymakers. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2003.

European Union and Council of Europe. Education against Corruption: A Manual for Teachers. Tirana: Council of Europe, 2012.

Faull, Andrew. “Democratic Policing and Codes of Conduct in Africa: The South African Police Service.” In Exploring Contemporary Police Challenges: A Global Perspective, 75–86. New York: Routledge, 2022.

Fetrati, Jalal. “Non-Violent Resistance Movements and Substantive Democracy.” Democratization 30, no. 3 (2023): 378–97.

Frevel, Bernhard, and Philipp Kuschewski. “Policing Divided Societies. Requirements for the Civic Education of Police Officers.” Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice 9, no. 2 (2023): 93–105.

Goertz, Gary. Social Science Concepts: A User’s Guide. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Hope, Kempe Ronald. “Civilian Oversight for Democratic Policing and Its Challenges: Overcoming Obstacles for Improved Police Accountability and Better Security in Africa and Beyond.” In Corruption, Sustainable Development and Security Challenges in Africa. Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development, 177–216. Springer, Cham., 2023.

Huntington, Samuel P. The Third Wave: Democratization in The Late Twentieth Century. London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Hutagalung, Reynold EP. “Democratic Policing Manivestasi Independensi Polri Dan Implementasi Perubahan Ligkungan Strategis Di Era Demokrasi.” Jurnal Keamanan Nasional 3, no. 2 (2017): 253–70.

International Commission of Jurists. The Dynamic Aspects of the Rule of Law in the Modern Age: Report On The Proceedings Of The South-East Asian And Pacific Conference Of Jurists Bangkok, Thailand. February 15-19, 1965. Geneva, Switzerland: International Commission of Jurists, 1965.

Irsan, Koesparmono. “Polisi, Kekerasan Dan Senjata Api: Tantangan Pemolisian Di Era Demokrasi.” Jurnal Keamanan Nasional 1, no. 2 (2015): 297–310.

Isoyama, Kyoko. “Law Related Education in Japan - Developments and Challenges.” International Journal of Public Legal Education 3, no. 1 (2019): 96.

J. Wiatr, Jerzy. “Civic Education for Human Rights.” Polish Political Science Yearbook 36, no. 1 (2007): 91–99.

Jónsson, Ólafur Páll, and Antonio Garces Rodriguez. “Educating Democracy: Competences for a Democratic Culture.” Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 16, no. 1 (2021): 62–77.

Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia. “Rilis Akhir Tahun 2022, Disampaikan Oleh Kapolri Jenderal Listyo Sigit Prabowo, 31 Desember 2022,” n.d.

Kiprono, Wilson, and Muchemi Joyce Karungari. “Peace Building Challenges in Kenya Implementation of Community Policing as a Critical Factor.” International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review 7, no. 12 (2016).

Komnas HAM. Laporan Tahunan Komnas HAM RI 2022: Capaian, Tantangan & Optimisme Melanjutkan Langkah Dalam Pemajuan & Penegakan HAM. Jakarta: Komnas HAM, 2023.

Kostić, Nevena Dičić. “Human Rights and Police – The Role of Police Training and Education.” In Collection of Policy Papers on Police Reform in Serbia Number 9, p. 56-77, 56–77. Serbia: Belgrade Centre for Security Policy, Belgrade Centre for Human Rights, Centre for Development Policy and Co-operation, 2014.

LBH Jakarta. Refleksi Hari Bhayangkara Ke-76 Tahun 2022: Rapor Merah Kepolisian RI Kewenangan Tanpa Pengawasan: Polisi Konsisten Jadi Aktor Pelanggar HAM. Jakarta: LBH Jakarta, 2022.

Lin, Keng hui, Aiden Sidebottom, and Richard Wortley. “Police Education and Democratic Policing in Taiwan: A Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study of the Effects of Selection and Police Socialisation on Human Rights, Moral Reasoning and Prejudice.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, no. 56 (2023).

Mcgonigle Leyh, Brianne. “A New Frame? Transforming Policing through Guarantees of Non-Repetition.” Policing (Oxford) 15, no. 1 (2021): 362–72.

Muhtaj, Majda El, and M. Fahmi Siregar. “Human Rights Education & Policing in Indonedia: A Case Study of the Regional Police of North Sumatra.” Journal of Human Rights and Peace Studies 4, no. 2 (2018): 383–424.

Muhtaj, Majda El, M. Fahmi Siregar, Reh Bungana Beru PA, and Fazli Rachman. “Literasi Hak Asasi Manusia Dalam Kurikulum Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan Di Perguruan Tinggi.” Jurnal HAM 11, no. 3 (2020): 369–85.

Muntingh, Lukas, Andrew Faull, Jean Redpath, and Kristen Petersen. “Democratic Policing: A Conceptual Framework.” Law, Democracy and Development 25 (2021).

Muradi. “Polisi Pasca Soeharto: Praktek Korupsi Mengalir Sampai Jauh.” Jurnal Sosial Politik 1, no. 2 (2012): 20–36.

———. Politics and Governance in Indonesia: The Police in the Era of Reformasi. London: Routledge, 2014.

Navarro-Castro, Loreta, and Jasmin Nario-Galace. Peace Education: A Pathway to a Culture of Peace. Philippines: Center for Peace Education, 2010.

Neoh, Jia Ying, and Ahmad Saifulloh. “Democratic Citizenship: The Case of Indonesia and Singapore.” Kappa Delta Pi Record 56, no. 1 (2020): 28–34.

O’Shea, Liam. “Democratic Police Reform, Security Sector Reform, Anti-Corruption and Spoilers: Lessons from Georgia.” Conflict, Security and Development 22, no. 4 (2022): 387–409.

OECD. Education for Integrity: Teaching on Anti-Corruption, Values and the Rule of Law. OECD, 2018.

Ombudsman RI. Laporan Tahunan 2022: Mengawasi Pelayanan Publik Bagi Pemulihan Yang Lebih Kuat. Jakarta Selatan: Ombudsman RI, 2022.

Osse, Anneke. Understanding Policing: A Resource for Human Rights Activists. Amsterdam: Amnesty International Nederland, 2007.

Pakpahan, Kartina, Sonya Airini Batubara, Herlina Manullang, and Edison Ginting. “Concept of Discretion of Police’s Rule as Law Enforcement Officers in Democratic Policing.” South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law 24, no. 6 (2021): 175–78.

Poolman, Sarah, Richard Wilshaw, and Jamie Grace. “Human Rights in Policing: The Past, Present and Future.” Political Quarterly 90, no. 3 (2019): 449–56.

Pudlat, A, and P Schütte-Bestek. “Preventing Violent Extremism and Strengthening Democracy–Civic Education in Law Enforcement and Policing in Germany.” European Law Enforcement Research …, 2017, 245–49.

Radbruch, Gustav, Bonnie Litschewski Paulson, and Stanley L. Paulson. “Statutory Lawlessness and Supra-Statutory Law (1946).” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 26, no. 1 (2006): 1–11.

Rahardjo, Satjipto. Membangun Polisi Sipil: Perspektif Hukum, Sosial, Dan Kemasyarakatan. Jakarta: Penerbit Kompas, 2007.

Ralph, Liam, and Paul Robinson. “Assessing Police Social Media Practices through a Democratic Policing Lens.” International Journal of Police Science & Managemen 25, no. 3 (2023): 237–49.

Reiner, Robert. The Politics of the Police. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Reumi, Frans, and Farida Kaplele. “Understanding Crime of Gratification and Integrity Values as Anti-Corruption Prevention in Papua Customary Law Society ( A Legal and Cultural Perspective ).” International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious 10, no. 3 (2023): 351–61.

Sandiya, Idris, and S. Basir. “Democratic Policing: POLRI Neutrality in Democratic Election.” Technium Social Sciences Journal 22, no. 1 (2021): 708–24.

Sargent, Lyman Tower. Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis. Canada: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2009.

Siregar, Sarah Nuraini. “Netralitas Polri Menjelang Pemilu Serentak 2019.” Jurnal Penelitian Politik 16, no. 1 (2019): 35–46.

———. “Polisi Sipil Dalam Reformasi Polri: Upaya & Dilema Antara Penegakan HAM Dan Fungsi Kepolisian.” Jurnal Penelitian Politik 14, no. 2 (2017): 149–64.

Siregar, Sarah Nuraini, Riaty Raffiudin, and Firman Noor. “Democratic Regression in Indonesia: Police and Low-Capacity Democracy in Jokowi’s Administration (2014–2020).” Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik 26, no. 2 (2022): 197–212.

Stradling, Robert. “Political Education in the 11 to 16 Curriculum.” Cambridge Journal of Education 8, no. 2–3 (1978): 98–109.

Thompson, Jeremy, and Brian Payne. “Towards Professionalism and Police Legitimacy? An Examination of the Education and Training Reforms of the Police in the Republic of Ireland.” Education Sciences 9, no. 3 (2019): 242–43.

Tim KontraS. Laporan Hari Bhayangkara Ke-77 “Kewenangan Eksesif, Kekerasan Dan Penyelewengan Tetap Masif.” Jakarta: Komisi untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban Tindak Kekerasan (KontraS), 2023.

U, Adinde Kenneth, Ezeah P.C., Emmanuel Ugochukwu Nwakanma, and Nsirim Elizabeth Nkechinyere. “Public Perception of Democratic Policing in South-East Nigeria.” AAN Journal of Management and Social Sciences 1, no. 1 (2022): 137–68.

Umar, Bambang Widodo. “Politik vs Polisi.” Jurnal Studi Kepolisian 071 (2009): 21–29.

———. Reformasi Kepolisian Republik Indonesia. Jakarta: IDSPS Press, 2009.

Zahrah, Fatimatuz, and Siti Maizul Habibah. “Freedom Of Speech and Human Rights: What Can Civic Education Do?” Jurnal HAM 13, no. 3 (2022): 495.

  Article Metric

Abstract this article has been read : 196 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) file viewed/downloaded : 114 times



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Mursyid Setiawan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Jurnal HAM Indexed by :


Complete list

Web Analytics

Jurnal HAM Statistics