The Dynamic Consent Development for Optimizing Personal Data Protection and The Right to Privacy

Masitoh Indriani, Annida Aqiila Putri


Consent is one of the foundations for data processing in the Operation of Electronic Systems by government and private institutions. Implementing consent as a basis for data processing has several shortcomings, particularly as it primarily relies on individuals being aware in providing authentic consent. In practice, individuals often give consent without considering any terms and conditions. Consent obtained without knowledge of data processing can jeopardize the right to privacy and the protection of personal data. This paper examines dynamic consent as a means to optimize the protection of privacy rights. The findings indicate that the concept of dynamic consent that prioritizes its approach to Data Subjects serves as a means to optimize personal data protection. Dynamic consent can strike a balance between on the one hand, the simplicity of the consent mechanism, and, on the other hand, the personal data protection standards and the right to privacy. Formulating dynamic consent should be based on legal elements, societal practices, technological features, and the involvement of personal data protection authorities. Additionally, as a form of implementing accountability for Electronic System Organizers as data controllers or processors, an effective mechanism for resolving personal data disputes is needed. These elements, when combined, can provide optimal personal data protection.


consent; dynamic consent; personal data protection; right to privacy


Arief, Verdico. “E-Government Di Asia Tenggara: Perbandingan Pengembangan E-Government Di Singapura, Malaysia Dan Indonesia.” Social Issues Quarterly 1, no. 2 (2023): 345–62.

Bester, Johan, Cristie M. Cole, and Eric Kodish. “The Limits of Informed Consent for an Overwhelmed Patient: Clinicians’ Role in Protecting Patients and Preventing Overwhelm.” AMA Journal of Ethics 18, no. 9 (2016): 869–86.

Brockdorff, N.; Appleby-Arnold, S. “What Consumers Think.” EU Consent Project, 2015.

Buchner, Benedikt, and Merle Freye. “Informed Consent in German Medical Law: Finding the Right Path between Patient Autonomy and Information Overload.” In SSRN Electronic Journal, 2022.

Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle, Harriet J.A. Teare, Jane Kaye, Stephan Beck, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Luciana Caenazzo, Clive Collett, et al. “Dynamic Consent: A Potential Solution to Some of the Challenges of Modern Biomedical Research.” BMC Medical Ethics 18, no. 1 (2017): 1–10.

Bygrave, Lee A. “Data Protection Pursuant to the Right to Privacy in Human Rights Treaties.” International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 1998, 4.

Djafar, Wahyudi, Miftah Fadli, and Lintang Setianti. Desain Kebijakan Tata Kelola Konten Internet: Usulan Pelembagaan Dari Perspektif Hak Asasi Manusia, 2017.

Djafar, Wahyudi, and M. Jodi Santoso. “Perlindungan Data Pribadi: Pentingnya Otoritas Pengawasan Independen.” Lembaga Studi Dan Advokasi Masyarakat, Seri Internet Dan HAM, 2019, 2.

Dove, Edward S., and Jiahong Chen. “Should Consent for Data Processing Be Privileged in Health Research? A Comparative Legal Analysis.” International Data Privacy Law, 2020.

Elde, Asbjorn, Alfredsson Gudmundur, and Göran Melander. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Commentary. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1992.

Erdos, David. “Accountability and the UK Data Protection Authority: From Cause for Data Subject Complaint to a Model for Europe?” Cambridge Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 14/2020, 2020.

Firdaus, Indriana. “Upaya Perlindungan Hukum Hak Privasi Terhadap Data Pribadi Dari Kejahatan Peretasan.” Jurnal Rechten: Riset Hukum Dan Hak Asasi Manusia 4, no. 2 (2022): 23–31.

Government, Digital. “E-Government Survey 2022.” New York, 2022.

Guidelines, Advisory, O N Requiring, Consent For, and Marketing Purposes. “Advisory Guidelines on Requiring Consent for Marketing Purposes.” Singapore, 2015.

Hern, Alex. “Facebook Usage Falling after Privacy Scandals, Data Suggests.” The Guardian, June 2019.

Human Rights Committee General Comment. “On the Right To Respect of Privacy, Family, Home and Correspondence, and Protection of Honour and Reputation.” Vol. I, 2013.

Indonesia, Badan Pusat Statistik Republik. “Statistik E-Commerce 2022.” Jakarta, 2022.

Indonesia, CNN. “10 Kasus Kebocoran Data 2022: Bjorka Dominan, Ramai-Ramai Bantah.” Accessed March 16, 2023.

Indriani, Masitoh, and Ekawestri Prajwalita Widiati. “The Privacy Challenge in the ‘Smart Era’: A Study of the Implementation of e-Government in Surabaya.” ICPS 2018 Proceeding, no. Icps (2019): 641–44.

Internet Society. “Global Internet Survey, Summary Report,” n.d.

Jayawickrama, Nihal. The Judicial Application of Human Rights Law, National, Regional and International Jurisprudence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Kaye, Jane, Edgar A. Whitley, David Lund, Michael Morrison, Harriet Teare, and Karen Melham. “Dynamic Consent: A Patient Interface for Twenty-First Century Research Networks.” European Journal of Human Genetics 23 (2015): 3.

Kurbalija, Jovan. An Introduction to Internet Governance. Diplo Foundation. Diplo Foundation, 2014.

Lister, John. “Privacy Policies Are Legally Required.” Accessed March 16, 2023.

Malik, Abdul. “Survei OJK 2022 : Inklusi Keuangan Naik Jadi 85,1% Dan Literasi 49,6%.” Accessed March 16, 2023.

Masyhur, Firdaus. “Penelitian E-Government Di Indonesia: Studi Literatur Sistematis Dari Perspektif Dimensi Pemeringkatan e-Government Indonesia (PeGI).” JURNAL IPTEKKOM : Jurnal Ilmu Pengetahuan & Teknologi Informasi 19, no. 1 (2017): 51.

Rahayu, Isna Rifka Sri. “Hasil Survei: Promosi Tak Lagi Jadi Penentu Utama Pilih e-Commerce.” Accessed March 16, 2023.

Rahman, Faiz, and Dian Agung Wicaksono. “Researching References on Interpretation of Personal Data in the Indonesian Constitution.” Jurnal Penelitian Hukum De Jure 21, no. 2 (2021): 187.

Razaghpanah, Abbas, Rishab Nithyanand, Narseo Vallina-Rodriguez, Srikanth Sundaresan, Mark Allman, Christian Kreibich, and Phillipa Gill. “Apps, Trackers, Privacy, and Regulators: A Global Study of the Mobile Tracking Ecosystem.” In Proceedings 2018 Network and Distributed System Security Symposium. Reston, VA: Internet Society, 2018.

Rizkinaswara, Leski. “Gerakan Menuju 100 Smart City.” Accessed March 16, 2023.

Rosadi, Sinta Dewi. “Perlindungan Data Pribadi Sebagai Alat Utama Menjamin Hak Privasi Warga Negara.” Kebebasan Berekspresi Di Indonesia: Hukum, Dinamika, Masalah Dan Tantangannya, 2016, 210.

Saefudin. “Signifikan, Hasil Survei e-Government Indonesia Naik 11 Peringkat.” Accessed March 16, 2023.

Schermer, Bart W., Bart Custers, and Simone Van der Hof. “The Crisis of Consent.” Ethics and Information Technology, no. 2007 (2014): 1–19.

Schlehahn, Eva, Patrick Murmann, and Farzaneh Karegar. “Opportunities and Challenges of Dynamic Consent in Commercial Big Data Analytics.” In IFIP International Summer School on Privacy and Identity Management, 29–44. Springer, 2020.

Sugiyanti, Umi, and Agung Pambudi. “Perlindungan Data Privasi Dan Kebebasan Informasidalam Platform WhatsApp.” Jurnal IPI (Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia 7, no. 2 (2022): 60–70.

Surfshark Lab. “Data Breaches Rise Globally in Q3 of 2022.” Data breaches rise globally in Q3 of 2022. Accessed March 16, 2023.

Teare, Harriet J.A., Megan Prictor, and Jane Kaye. “Reflections on Dynamic Consent in Biomedical Research: The Story so Far.” European Journal of Human Genetics 29, no. 4 (2021): 649–56.

the European Commission. “Opinion 15/2011 on the Definition of Consent.” Opinion 15/2011 on the definition of consent. Accessed March 16, 2023.

the United Nations. “The United Nation E-Government Survey 2022: The Future of Digital Government.” New York, n.d. version E-Government 2022.pdf.

Tirah Arum Toewoeh. “Kominfo Gerak Cepat Tangani Lima Kasus Baru Kebocoran Data.” Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika RI. Accessed March 16, 2023.

TTC Labs, and Infocomm Media Development Authority. “People-Centric Approaches to Notice, Consent, and Disclosure.” Singapore, 2019.

UK Information Commissioner’s Office. “Guide to the General Data Protection Regulation,” 2019.

Warren, Samuel D, and Louis D Brandeis. “The Right to Privacy.” Harvard Law Review 4, no. 5 (1890): 193–220.

Westin, Alan F. Privacy and Freedom. New York: Atheneum Press, 1967.

Wirawan, Vani. “Penerapan E-Government Dalam Menyongsong Era Revolusi Industri 4.0 Kontemporer Di Indonesia.” Jurnal Penegakan Hukum Dan Keadilan 1, no. 1 (2020): 1–16.

Working Party 29. “Opinion 15/2011 on the Definition of Consent,” 2011.

Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 (1945).

Undang-Undang No. 12 Tahun 2005 entang Pengesahan International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Kovenan Internasional Tentang Hak-Hak Sipil dan Politik), § Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2005 Nomor 119 (2008).

Undang-undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2008 tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik, § Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2008 Nomor 58 (2008).

Undang-undang Nomor 19 Tahun 2016 tentang Perubahan Undang-undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2008 tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik, § Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2016 Nomor 251 (2016).

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 27 Tahun 2022 tentang Pelindungan Data Pribadi, § Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2022 Nomor 196 (2022).

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

  Article Metric

Abstract this article has been read : 530 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) file viewed/downloaded : 410 times | TRANSLATION file viewed/downloaded : 143 times



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Masitoh Indriani, Annida Aqiila Putri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Jurnal HAM Indexed by :


Complete list

Web Analytics

Jurnal HAM Statistics