Ciptaan dan Invensi Hasil Kecerdasan Buatan dalam Perspektif Hak Cipta dan Paten

Richard Jatimulya Alam Wibowo

  Abstract


Kecerdasan buatan telah berkembang dengan sedemikian rupa sehingga mampu menghasilkan ciptaan dan Invensi tanpa campur tangan manusia melalui pelatihan sejumlah dataset. Penelitian yuridis normatif ini bertujuan untuk melihat permasalahan AI dalam perspektif AI sebagai subjek dan hasil AI sebagai objek perlindungan hak cipta dan paten, serta mengkaji implikasi penggunaan ciptaan dalam dataset untuk melatih AI. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa AI tidak dapat menjadi seorang Pencipta dan Inventor karena hak moral dan hak asasi diperuntukkan untuk manusia, selain itu AI juga tidak dapat memanfaatkan hak ekonomi yang didapatkan dari perlindungan ciptaan atau paten. Kajian ini turut menemukan penggunaan dataset berisi ciptaan orang lain sebagai materi pengembangan AI berpotensi menimbulkan pelanggaran hak cipta. Potensi ini dimitigasi oleh beberapa negara dengan penerapan regulasi terkait TDM atau data scraping untuk machine learning AI. Akhirnya kajian ini juga menemukan bahwa ciptaan dan Invensi hasil AI pada umumnya tidak dapat menjadi objek yang dilindungi oleh rezim hak cipta kecuali mendapat kontribusi manusia secara langsung atau diformulasikan dalam peraturan perundang-undangan seperti dalam rezim hak cipta CGW di Inggris. Penelitian ini menyarankan bahwa praktik-praktik di negara lain dalam rezim perlindungan hak cipta dan paten terkait AI dapat dijadikan acuan politik hukum di Indonesia untuk membuat regulasi AI yang menyeimbangkan hak moral dan hak ekonomi para Pencipta dan Inventor dengan laju inovasi AI.


  Keywords


Hak Cipta; Kecerdasan Buatan; Paten.

  Full Text:

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  References


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Simatupang, Taufik H. “Hak Asasi Manusia dan Perlindungan Kekayaan Intelektual dalam Perspektif Negara Hukum.” Jurnal HAM 12, no. 1 (2021): 111-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/ham.2021.12.111-122

Soelistyo, Henry. “Distorsi Hak Moral dalam Orbit Digital.” Technology and Economics Law 1, no. 2 (2022): 97-109. https://scholarhub.ui.ac.id/telj/vol1/iss2/1

Southern, Matt G. “OpenAI’s ChatGPT Update Brings Improved Accuracy.” SearchEngineJournal, 10 Januari 2023. https://www.searchenginejournal.com/openai-chatgpt-update/476116/

Stevens, Ric. “Artificial Intelligence: You Have to be a Real Person to be an Inventor. Court Rules.” New Zealand Heralds, 21 Maret 2023. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/artificial-intelligence-you-have-to-be-a-real-person-to-be-an-inventor-court-rules/Y7QCZC4WCZDULNAZM3EJ2OPVFQ/

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Susanti, Dyah Ochtorina dan A’an Efendi. Penelitian Hukum (Legal Research). Jakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2014.

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Surat Gugatan Andersen et al v. Stability AI et al. https://ipwatchdog.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/ Andersen_et_al_v._Stability_AI.pdf

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Tektona, Rahmadi Indra, Nuzulia Kumala Sari, dan Maulana Reyza Alfaris. “Quo Vadis Undang-Undang Hak Cipta di Indonesia: Perbandingan Konsep ciptaan Artificial Intelligence di Beberapa Negara.” Negara Hukum 12, no. 2 (2021): 285-305.

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Thaler v. Comptroller General of Patent Trademarks and Design. no. A3/2020/1851 (Royal Court of Justice Strand 2021).


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/kebijakan.2023.V17.269-288

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