Pandemi Covid-19: Perspektif Hukum Tata Negara Darurat dan Perlindungan HAM

Rizki Bagus Prasetio

  Abstract


Banyak negara bimbang menggunakan instrumen hukum mana yang tepat agar dapat menanggulangi krisis akibat pandemi Covid-19. Ada yang memilih menetapakan keadaan darurat berdasar konstitusi, menggunakan UU yang berlaku tentang kebencanaan atau krisis kesehatan, dan melakukan legislasi baru. Penetapan keadaan darurat memungkinkan negara melakukan penyimpangan keberlakuan hukum bahkan menangguhkan HAM sementara waktu. Oleh kerenanya penetapan status darurat berpotensi disalahgunakan dan berakibat pada tereduksinya jaminan perlindungan HAM. Tulisan ini menjelaskan kebijakan pemerintah Indonesia dalam memilih instrumen hukum untuk menanggulangi Pandemi Covid-19 disatu sisi dan disisi lain bagaimana pemerintah tetap menjamin perlindungan HAM. Hasilnya, meskipun Pasal 12 UUD 1945 menyediakan ketentuan keadaan darurat konstitusional, Indonesia memilih menggunakan Kedaruratan Kesehatan dalam UU 6 Tahun 2018 dan Darurat Bencana Non Alam dalam UU 24 Tahun 2007. Dua status darurat tersebut tidak sama sekali melibatkan Pasal 12 UUD 1945 sebagai dasar pembentukannya. Sehingga keadaan darurat dimaksud bukanlah state of emergency sebagaimana dimaksud dalam kajian hukum tata negara darurat atau hanya bersifat de facto bukan de jure. Selain itu, dua status darurat tersebut tidak memuat berbagai syarat yang sudah diamanatkan ICCPR. Oleh karenanya perlindungan HAM harus tetap dipenuhi. Meskipun ada pembatasan, hal tersebut tentunya tidak berlaku bagi hak yang bersifat mendasar apalagi terhadap kelompok non derogable rights.


  Keywords


covid-19; keadaan darurat; hukum tata negara darurat; hak asasi manusia;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/kebijakan.2021.V15.327-346

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