Integrasi Prinsip Non-Refoulement dengan Prinsip Jus Cogens pada Kebijakan Penanganan Pengungsi di Indonesia

Rohmad Adi Yulianto

Abstract


Problematika kemanusiaan yang jamak terjadi di berbagai negara memunculkan fenomena migrasi manusia lintas negara. Indonesia menjadi salah satu negara yang menjadi tujuan singgah migrasi pengungsi sebelum mereka diberikan suaka oleh negara-negara pemberi suaka. Migrasi pengungsi lintas negara mempengaruhi terbentuknya regulasi supra nasional tentang perlindungan, status, dan hak-hak para pengungsi pencari suaka, baik di negara penerima maupun negara singgah. Penelitian ini menganalisis hubungan antara prinsip non-refoulement dengan norma kepastian yang terkandung di dalam prinsip jus cogens pada sumber hukum internasional. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan yuridis filosofis dengan memaparkan hubungan antara tiga aliran dalam hukum internasional: naturalis, positivis, dan kosmopolis. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa kebijakan penanganan pengungsi di Indonesia tidak melandaskan kepatuhan negara atas prinsip non-refoulement terhadap konvensi tahun 1951 tentang pengungsi, melainkan berdasarkan kepada kovenan dan konvensi internasional tentang Hak Asasi Manusia dan Hak Sipil yang telah diratifikasi Pemerintah Indonesia melalui Undang-undang RI Nomor 5 tahun 1998, Undang-undang RI Nomor 39 tahun 1999, dan Undang-undang RI Nomor 12 tahun 2005. Penelitian ini juga menyimpulkan bahwa ketiga aliran filsafat rezim hukum internasional; Naturalis, Positivis, dan Kosmopolis, memiliki kesamaan dalam memetakan dasar kepatuhan negara terhadap aturan-aturan supranasional, yaitu terdapatnya sikap negara secara sukarela untuk mengikatkan diri ke dalam kesepakatan dengan negara lain.


Keywords


penanganan; pengungsi; jus cogens; non-refoulement

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/kebijakan.2020.V14.493-516

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