A Critical Analysis of the Indonesian Human Rights Action Plan 1998-2020

Majda El Muhtaj

  Abstract


This article analyzes the emergence and development of the National Human Rights Action Plan (NHRAP) or Rencana Aksi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia (Ranham) during Indonesian Reform era, 1998-2020. Ranham is recognized as a national strategic policy document that describes and explains; 1) how the state incorporates human rights principles and norms into its policies, and 2) how to measure its remarkable achievements. All Indonesian governments have adopted and implemented Ranham, which was enacted by Presidential Regulations during five phases in the two decades of the Reform era. Ranham was derived and mandated by the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action (VDPA) 1993. Up until recently, more than 70 states have formulated the Ranham, including Indonesia. This article discovers that the policy of Ranham during the Reform era reflects the national commitment to the human rights agenda. However, the lack of the conceptualization of human rights still impedes the development and reinforcement of the national human rights system.

  Keywords


human rights; ranham; VDPA

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  References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/ham.2022.13.519-538

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