Hak Suaka versus Kedaulatan: Studi Kasus Pencari Suaka Etnis Rohingya

B. Lora Christyanti

  Abstract


Hak suaka merupakan hak dasar yang diakui oleh hukum internasional. Terlepas dari pentingnya hak ini, masih terdapat tantangan yang dihadapi dalam pemenuhan hak ini. Salah satunya adalah kedaulatan negara, yang menjadi dasar dalam menentukan siapa saja yang diizinkan untuk tinggal dalam wilayah teritorial suatu negara. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh Etnis Rohingya dalam mencari suaka di negara lain merupakan bukti nyata permasalahan ini. Rohingya diakui sebagai one of the world’s most persecuted minorities, yang menghadapi beragam kekejaman sistematis sejak beberapa dekade yang lalu. Tulisan ini membahas tentang problematika hak untuk mendapatkan suaka dengan menjawab pertanyaan apakah bentuk tantangan yang dihadapi oleh Etnis Rohingya dalam mencari suaka. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode yuridis dengan melihat pengalaman etnis Rohingya untuk mengetahui problematika hak suaka. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ditemukan bahwa terlepas dari adanya hak suaka, hak untuk memberikan suaka merupakan hak negara yang bersumber dari kedaulatan negara. Terkait dengan hal tersebut, terdapat beragam tantangan etnis Rohingya dalam mencari dan menikmati hak suaka. Bentuk-bentuk tantangan yang dihadapi oleh etnis Rohingya meliputi penolakan akses untuk melintasi perbatasan, pengusiran paksa, penolakan akses ke prosedur untuk memverifikasi status pengungsi, penggunaan repatriasi sukarela sebagai dalih untuk penarikan suaka, penggunaan sarana legal untuk mengusir pencari suaka, dan penggunaan mekanisme non-entre’e.


  Keywords


hak asasi manusia; hak suaka; etnis Rohingya

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/ham.2022.13.333-346

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