Peran Mahkamah Konstitusi Federal Jerman dalam Perlindungan Hak Fundamental Warga Negara Berdasarkan Kewenangan Pengaduan Konstitusional

Tanto Lailam

  Abstract


Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang peran pengaduan konstitusional Mahkamah Konstitusi Jerman (Bundesverfassungsgericht/ BVerfG). Pertanyaan penelitiannya adalah bagaimana sistem dan peran BVerfG dalam memberikan perlindungan hak fundamental warga negara? Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui sistem (urgensi, pengaturan) dan peran/ kinerja BverfG dalam menjalankan kewenangannya secara komprehensif. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian hukum normatif dengan pendekatan peraturan perundang-undangan dan pendekatan kasus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa BVerfG telah menerima 240.251 (98%) kasus pengaduan konstitusional sejak tahun 1951 – 2020 (6.000 kasus per tahun), dengan tingkat keberhasilan (putusan dikabulkan) sekitar kurang lebih 2% dari total putusan. Berdasarkan tiga kasus yang dianalisis yaitu putusan terkait pengawasan global, larangan pemakaian jilbab dalam legal traineeship, dan kasus the European Central Bank/ ECB’s asset purchase program menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun 2020, BVerfG melaksanakan peran yang baik dalam perlindungan hak fundamental warga negara dari putusan pegadilan yang melangar hak fundamental. Selain itu, peran yang baik juga dibuktikan dengan pengakuan negara lain yang menjadikannya sebagai rujukan dalam menata praktek Mahkamah Konstitusi di negaranya, baik yang menganut sistem hukum Eropa Kontinental maupun Anglo-Saxon. Bagi Indonesia, tentu menjadi referensi dalam penambahan kewenangan pengaduan konstitusional bagi Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia kedepan.

  Keywords


pengaduan konstitusional; mahkamah konstitusi; jerman; hak fundamental

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/ham.2022.13.65-80

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