Limitation of The President's Power to Declare a State of Emergency: a Comparison of France, India, and Indonesia

Muhammad Yoppy Adhihernawan, Hernadi Affandi


The state must declare a state of emergency under certain conditions that endanger the safety of the state and society. Limiting the power to the declaration of a state of emergency is essential because this great authority cannot be used according to the President's will, so it is necessary to have restrictive mechanisms so that the President does not misuse the authority to carry out the emergency. However, the Indonesian constitution does not stipulate any restrictions on the powers of the President in declaring a state of emergency. This study aims to determine the dangers of not limiting the President's powers in declaring a state of emergency in the Indonesian constitution by using the arrangements and practices of emergency law in France and India. The approach used in this study is a comparative level that compares the contents of the constitution's text and compares the implementation and history of the constitution. The result of this study is limiting the power of the President in declaring a state of emergency is necessary based on a comparison of arrangements and experiences in France and India. Therefore, Indonesia must restrict the President's power in declaring a state of emergency to its constitution.


Constitution; Emergency; Misuse; President; Restriction

  Full Text:



Allan, T.R.S. “Dworkin and Dicey: The Rule of Law as Integrity.” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 8, no. 2 (1988): 2.

Austin, Granville. Working a Democratic Constitution - A History of the Indian Experience. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Bhardwaj, R.C. Constitution Amendment in India. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 1995.

Bjørnskov, Christian, and Stefan Voigt. “The Architecture of Emergency Constitutions.” International Journal of Constitutional Law 16, no. 1 (2018): 101–127.

Cruz, Peter De. Comparative Law in a Changing World. Edited by Cavendish. London, 1999.

Dyzenhaus, David. Legality in a Time of Emergency. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Ford, Paul Leicester. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1986.

Gross, Oren, and Fionnuala ní Aoláin. Law in Time of Crisis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Hartmann, Christian. “Two Years after the Paris Attacks France Ends State of Emergency.”

Hermann, Y. “French National Assembly Votes to Extend State of Emergency for Fifth Time.” Last modified 2016. Accessed May 20, 2022.

Holland, Thomas Erskine. The Laws of War on Land. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908.

Human Right Watch. “France: Abuses Under State of Emergency.” Last modified 2016. Accessed May 20, 2022.

———. “France: New Emergency Powers Threaten Rights.” Last modified 2015. Accessed May 20, 2022.

Iyer, Venkat. States of Emergency: The Indian Experience. New Delhi: Butterworths India, 2000.

Jayus, and Muhammad Bahrul Ulum. “Presidential Power’s Limitation to Emergency Provisions in Indonesia.” Cita Hukum 8, no. 2 (2020): 343–362.

Jimly Asshiddiqie. Hukum Tata Negara Darurat. Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo Persada, 2007.

Lauterpacht, H. “The Realist Challenge and the ‘Grotian Tradition’ in 20th-Century International Relations.” European Journal of International Relations 12, no. 2 (2006): 30–38.

Loewenstein, Karl. “Militant Democracy and Fundamental Rights.” American Political Science Review 31 (1937): 432.

Manan, Bagir, and Susi Dwi Harijanti. “Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Dalam Perspektif Ajaran Konstitusi Dan Prinsip Negara Hukum.” Padjadjaran Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 4, no. 2 (2017).

Neely Jr, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Paul, Subin. “‘When India Was Indira.’” Journalism History 42, no. 4 (2017): 201–211.

Roberts, Adam. “Civil Resistance to Military Coups.” Journal of Peace Research 12, no. 1 (1975): 19–36.

Rossiter, Clinton L. Constitutional Dictatorship. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1948.

Schachter, Oscar. “Self Defence and the Rule of Law.” American Journal of International Law, no. 83 (1989): 253.

Schlesinger, Rudolf B. Comparative Law: Cases Text Materials. 2nd ed. Brooklyn: Foundation Press, 1959.

Sheeran, Scott P. “Reconceptualizing States of Emergency under International Human Right Law: Theory, Legal Doctrine, and Politics.” Michigan Journal of International Law, no. 491 (2013): 496.

Sihombing, Herman. Hukum Tata Negara Darurat Di Indonesia. Jakarta: Penerbit Djambatan, 1996.

Suganda, Atma, and Musa Anthony Siregar. “The Meaning and Development of State Emergency Laws Based on Constitution in The Indonesian Legal System.” Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research 499 (2020): 544–553.

Susanto, Mei, Rahayu Prasetianingsih, and Lailani Sungkar. “Kekuasaan DPR Dalam Pengisian Jabatan Negara Dalam Sistem Ketatanegaraan Indonesia.” Jurnal Penelitian Hukum De Jure 18, no. 1 (2018): 23–41.

Taufiqurrohman, Moch Marsa, Muhammad Thoriq Fahri, Robi Kurnia Wijaya, and I Gede Putu Wiranata. “The Use of Necessitas Non Habet Legem and Wederspanningheid in Law Enforcement for Covid-19 Vaccination in Indonesia.” Jurnal Penelitian Hukum De Jure 21, no. 4 (2021): 473–488.

Venter, Francois. Constitutional Comparison: Japan, Germany, Canada & South Africa as Constitutional State. Edited by Juta & CO Ltd. Cape Town, 2000.

Westin, Alan F. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Law Case: Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer; The Steel Seizure Decision. New York: Macmillan, 1958.

Windrow, Martin. The Algerian War 1954-62. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 1997.

  Article Metric

Abstract this article has been read : 1209 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded : 719 times



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Yoppy Adhihernawan, Hernadi Affandi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Penelitian Hukum De Jure Indexed by :

         JournalStories Main logo

Complete list

Jurnal Penelitian Hukum De Jure Statistic