Paris Agreement: Respon Terhadap Pendekatan Prinsip Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities Dalam Kyoto Protocol

Arie Afriansyah, Amira Bilqis

Abstract


Kemampuan dalam menangani permasalahan lingkungan antara negara maju dan berkembang kerap berdampak obligasi yang diatur dalam perjanjian internasional. Prinsip Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR-RC) sebagai prinsip yang memimpin dalam hukum lingkungan internasional merupakan jembatan untuk menyeimbangkan kepentingan dua kelompok negara tersebut. Namun, dalam instrumen hukum internasional terdapat implementasi yang berbeda dari prinsip tersebut dengan masing-masing pendekatan yang digunakan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisa bagaimana implementasi prinsip CBDR-RC dalam Paris Agreement dibandingkan dengan pendahulunya yaitu Kyoto Protocol. Metode penelitian dalam tulisan ini adalah yuridis normatif yang disajikan secara deskriptif analitis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan yang digunakan dalam Kyoto Protocol sebagai perjanjian yang menetapkan secara kaku besaran emisi yang harus direduksi diidentifikasi sebagai Top-Down. Sedangkan perjanjian penerusnya yaitu Paris Agreement sebagai perjanjian yang didasarkan atas dasar sukarela terhadap besaran emisi yang perlu dicapai diidentifikasi menggunakan pendekatan sebagai Bottom-Up. Pendekatan yang digunakan dari Paris Agreement berbeda sebagai respon dan bentuk evaluasi dari pendekatan yang digunakan dalam Kyoto Protocol yang berakibat tingkat partisipasi dalam usaha reduksi emisi meningkat secara drastis dan mendorong negara Annex I menargetkan reduksi yang lebih tinggi lagi. Terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa Paris Agreement telah menyelesaikan masalah dalam mekanisme Kyoto Protocol, perjanjian ini masih memiliki beberapa kekurangan. Kesimpulannya, transformasi pendekatan yang terjadi dalam kedua perjanjian ini mempengaruhi tren komitmen reduksi emisi dalam rezim perubahan iklim bagi negara maju maupun berkembang.


Keywords


prinsip tanggung jawab bersama tapi beda; kyoto protocol; paris agreement; perubahan iklim.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/dejure.2020.V20.391-408

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