Pelokalan Hak Asasi Manusia Melalui Partisipasi Publik dalam Kebijakan Berbasis Hak Asasi Manusia

Sabrina Nadilla

Abstract


Upaya untuk membawa nilai-nilai Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM) ke tingkat lokal sudah mencuat sejak 1990-an, melalui berbagai konsep, salah satunya human rights in the city. Konsep tersebut menantang pendekatan HAM yang selama ini hanya terpusat pada negara, sehingga membuka ruang bagi ide bahwa implementasi nilai-nilai HAM harus ditangani oleh berbagai tingkatan pemerintahan, bukan lagi terbatas pada pemerintah pusat. Dalam konteks Indonesia, upaya melokalkan nilai-nilai HAM telah dilakukan melalui berbagai kebijakan hak asasi manusia. Kebijakan tersebut antara lain penghargaan kabupaten/kota peduli HAM yang diselenggarakan oleh Kementerian Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia, dan proyek Kota HAM Bandung. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif yang berbasis pada studi kasus, analisis dilakukan dengan menerapkan konsep pendekatan hak asasi manusia (human rights-based approach) dalam kebijakan hak asasi manusia. Dalam perspektif pelokalan hak asasi manusia, kebijakan HAM di Kota Bandung menunjukkan beberapa indikasi. Pertama, kebijakan Deklarasi HAM Bandung sebagai suatu kebijakan berbasis hak asasi manusia yang bersifat bottom-up masih belum mampu mendukung upaya pelokalan HAM di kota Bandung. Kedua, kebijakan Penghargaan Kabupaten/Kota Peduli HAM sebagai suatu kebijakan yang bersifat top-down, meskipun mendapatkan respons positif dari pemerintah kota dan instansi vertikal sebagai bagian dari pelaksana kebijakan, tidak mendapatkan legitimasi yang cukup dari masyarakat kota Bandung.

 


Keywords


pelokalan HAM; kebijakan berbasis HAM; partisipasi publik.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguilar, Gaby Oré. “The Local Relevance of Human Rights: A Methodological Approach.” The Local Relevance of Human Rights (2011): 109–146.

Baxter, Pamela, and Susan Jack. “The Qualitative Report Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers.” The qualitative reportualitative report 13, no. 2 (2008): 544–559.

Boedeltje, Mijke, and Juul Cornips. “Input and Output Legitimacy in Interactive Governance.” NIG Annual Work Conference NIG2-01 (2004): 1–23.

Chueca, Eva Garcia. “Human Rights in the City and the Right to the City.” In Global Urban Justice: The Rise of Human Rights Cities, edited by Barbara Oomen, Martha F. Davis, and Michele Grigolo, 103–120. Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Citrawan, Harison. “Analisis Dampak Hak Asasi Manusia Atas Regulasi: Sebuah Tinjauan Metodologi.” Jurnal HAM 8, no. 1 (2018): 13.

Cohen, Joshua, and Charles Sabel. “Directly-Deliberative Polyarchy.” European Law Journal 3, no. 4 (1997): 313–342.

Darusman, Marzuki. “Bandung’s Efforts and Social Justice.” The Jakarta Post. Last modified 2015. Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/04/23/bandung-s-efforts-and-social-justice.html.

European Network of National Human Rights Institutions. “Applying a Human Rights-Based Approach.” Last modified 2016. Accessed May 19, 2019. http://ennhri.org/Applying-a-Human-Rights-Based-Approach.

Feyter, Koen De. Localizing Human Rights. Antwerp, 2006.

FIHRRST. “Making the Right Start – Bandung Begins Its Journey as Our Human Rights City.” Last modified 2015. Accessed May 8, 2019. http://www.fihrrst.org/making-the-right-start-bandung-begins-its-journey-as-our-human-rights-city.

Government of Canada. “Human Rights Based Approach.” Last modified 2017. Accessed May 19, 2019. https://international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/priorities-priorites/human_rights-droits_personne.aspx?lang=eng.

Hatmoko, Widi. “#SaveXpalaguna: Seniman Tolak Bekas Gedung Palaguna Jadi Mal Dan Hotel.” Merahputih.Com. Accessed May 8, 2019. https://merahputih.com/post/read/savexpalaguna-seniman-tolak-bekas-gedung-palaguna-jadi-mal-dan-hotel.

Human Rights Council. “Role of Local Government in the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights.” Vol. A/HRC/30/4, 2015.

INFID. Buku Panduan Kabupaten/Kota HAM. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. Jakarta: INFID, 2018.

———. Kertas Kertas Kebijakan: Kabupaten/Kota HAM Sebagai Strategi Pelaksanaan Hak Asasi Manusia Di Daerah Dan Peran Pemerintah Pusat. Jakarta, n.d.

Klausen, Jan Erling, and David Sweeting. “Community Involvement and Legitimation in Urban Governance: An Empirical Analysis.” In Legitimacy and Urban Governance, A Cross-National Comparative Study, edited by Hubert Heinelt, David Sweeting, and Panagiotis Getimis, 191–208. 1st ed. New York: Routledge, 2006.

———. “Legitimacy and Community Involvement in Local Governance.” In Urban Governance and Democracy, Leadership and Community Involvement, edited by Michael Haus, Hubert Heinelt, and Murray Stewart, 214–233. 1st ed. New York: Routledge, 2005.

OHCHR. “Achievements and Challenges of the Human Rights City Gwangju” 1929 (2011).

———. “What Value Does a Human Rights-Based Approach Add to Development?” UN Practitioners’ Portal on Human Rights Based Approaches to Programming. Accessed May 19, 2019. https://hrbaportal.org/faq/what-value-does-a-human-rights-based-approach-add-to-development.

Permana, Afif. “Jadi Kota HAM Pertama Di Indonesia, Bandung Ingin Kota Lain Ikut.” Last modified 2015. Accessed May 7, 2019. http://bandung.bisnis.com/read/20150424/82444/532261/jadi-kota-ham-pertama-di-indonesia-bandung-ingin-kota-lain-ikut.

Ramdhani, Dendi. “Bandung Canangkan Diri Sebagai Kota Ramah HAM.” KOMPAS.Com. Last modified 2015. Accessed May 8, 2019. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2015/12/11/11112941/Bandung.Canangkan.Diri.sebagai.Kota.Ramah.HAM.

Ray, Ranita. “Challenges in Localizing Global Human Rights.” Societies Without Borders 7, no. 1 (2012): 29–51.

Scharpf, Fritz W. “Economic Integration, Democracy and the Welfare State.” Journal of European Public Policy 4, no. 1 (1997): 18–36.

Schmidt, Vivien A. “Democracy and Legitimacy in the European Union Revisited : Input , Output and ‘ Throughput .’” Political Studies Association 61 (2013): 2–22.

Vandenbogaerde, Arne. “Localizing the Human Rights Council: A Case Study of the Declaration on the Rights of Peasants.” Journal of Human Rights 16, no. 2 (2017): 220–241.

Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission. “From Principle To Practice: Implementing the Human Rights Based Approach in Community Organisations” (2008): 1–31.

Wolf, Klaus Dieter. “Contextualizing Normative Standards for Legitimate Governance beyond the State.” Participatory Governance (2002): 35–50.

Bandung Charter of a Human Rights City. Indonesia, 2015. http://fihrrst.org/images/file/1482922541-Bandung_Charter_of_a_Human_Rights_City.pdf.

European Charter for Safeguarding Human Rights in the City. Saint Denis, 2002.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/ham.2019.10.85-98

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Jurnal HAM Indexed by :

   


Jurnal HAM Statistic
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License